phosphate fixation capacity is highest in which soil

If soils are too acidic, phosphorus reacts with iron and aluminum. There are certain constants involved that the crop manager cannot change. Although the agricultural significance of NH 4+ fixation is not generally considered to be great, it can be of importance in certain soils, and clay-fixed NH 4+ has received attention in many countries. Effect of pH-value on fixation capacity. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. IV. Phosphate may be adsorbed on the surface of calcium carbonate particles. 0000015649 00000 n Native fixed NH 4+ is significant in many soils and it can amount to about 10-31 per cent of the total fixation capacity. 0000002485 00000 n Different mechanisms of phosphate fixation operate at different pH levels. The collected soil samples were analyzed for physico-chemical properties and phosphorus fixing capacity. Phosphorus Fixation in Alkaline AND Calcareous Soils Phosphorus fixation in alkaline and calcareous soils is usually attributed to the formation of phosphate compounds of calciimi. }7�6��n�G����L.�ݦ[a6ubRd���̥�}_���|���N�`�cά� �d�����}��9���1J��"�iZ��4*2F٨O���_%� u�ݡd,�b4֖���� Xt%�Y�ҍ8-O���?G�e���A*�(��Ie�B��������xB���8�,t���p�6������%��ɛ Although this is a common occurrence in soils, it becomes a major management consideration in certain soils because of the large amounts of fertilizer P needed to meet crop requirements. 0000001345 00000 n 0000002464 00000 n The high phosphate fixation by allophane or imogolite can be evidenced by a value of pH in NaF higher than 10 and leads to phosphate fertilization needs of more than 200 mg P kg −1. 0000012203 00000 n Organic matter decomposes releasing P more quickly in warm humid climates and in cool slower dry climates. There are three peaks of P fixation (Figure 1). So that farmers usually apply with high rates of phosphate to improve crop yields. Fixation data were obtained by equilibrating the five soil samples with 25 ml of KH 2 PO 4 in 0.01 M CaCl 2, containing 0, 10, 50, 100, 250 and 500 mg L-1. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. 56 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /L 405502 /H [ 1125 220 ] /O 59 /E 22801 /N 10 /T 404264 >> endobj xref 56 28 0000000016 00000 n We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. �7�n��w���ֹ�+2{�r_�/��ė����㏬=�������(>��T; �����(�zߵ�������y 13. III.—The phosphate-fixing capacity of soil. The amounts of water soluble iron and aluminum in soils are very low in comparison to the amounts of phosphorus that soils are capable of fixing. high levels, the phosphate is fixed in appreciable quantity (CATANI & PELLEGRINO, 1960). When the plant products are returned to the soil, they provide a source of energy for the soil microflora, which in turn synthesizes the organic compounds of phosphorus. That’s because phosphorus in soils is often in forms that plants can’t take up. Factors affecting phosphorus retention/fixation in soils 1. 0000017624 00000 n In addition, however, the iron and aluminum compounds discussed in relation to fixation in acid soils are also responsible for some fixation in soils of higher pH. 0000018801 00000 n 0000013580 00000 n Usually higher the content of CaCO3 in soil, the higher is the fixation of phosphate. Applications of lime or organic matter to the New South Wales lateritic soils do not release phosphate or prevent phosphate fixation, and soluble silicates are not economic to apply. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60754-3.  (e) Calcium Carbonate:  Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) exerts significant influence on phosphate fixation. 0000019601 00000 n 0000000933 00000 n Bear and Toth (1942) in discussing phosphate fixation by a Colts Neck soil show the following: this soil has a phosphorus fixing capacity of 1.2 g. On the average, it requires nine pounds of P2O5 to raise the soil test one ppm for the Bray test. The best way to know if your soil has a high phosphorus fixation capacity is to monitor the rate at which the soil-test levels build when extra phosphorus fertilizer is applied. 1999). Phosphorus sorption isotherms were constructed for soils which varied in mineralogy, texture, and past history of phosphate fertilization. However, the pre… Phosphate sorption is a term used to describe all the processes resulting in the removal of phosphate from soil solution, mainly by surface adsorption and precipitation [].Important soil factors that determine its capacity to retain phosphorus (P) are the presence of amorphous aluminium and Iron oxides compounds []. 0000011047 00000 n Above pH 9.0, PO 43- dominates but H 2 PO 4– is still present. Phosphorus moves to the root surface through diffusion. Phosphorus fixation capacity as a guide for phosphorus availability in Entisol soil order of North-East India Bidisha Borpatragohain, Dwipendra Thakuria, Ashish Rai, Bharati Upadhaya and Subhra Sahoo Abstract A laboratory experiment was conducted in the College of Post Graduate Studies in Agricultural Sciences, Umiam, Meghalaya. The relative ability of soils, clay minerals, and hydrous oxides to fix phosphorus has been determined by a variety of methods, such as by measuring the decrease in the concentration of aqueous phosphate solutions equilibrated with soils and by measuring the amounts of phosphorus extractable from soils equilibrated with phosphatic compounds as compared with untreated soils. …��_�Vvs8��p���/,�bC2A�D�� 0000001486 00000 n The soils of Mokokchung (Nagaland) showed the highest percentage of P fixation andNorth-West-1Jorhat (Assam), the least among the three profiles. 0000018988 00000 n 0000001125 00000 n %PDF-1.3 %���� • Less-weathered and … In general, crop use of any nutrient depends on a two-step process: soil supply of that nutrient in an available form, and uptake of that available nutrient by the crop. The soils that exhibit highest P fixation capacity occupy 1,018 million hectares (ha) in … �d9�����3�>���i�F ���xf�[email protected]{�&�6s�kN��H9�eB�U��n7(�O"���%"ݻD���) Copyright © 1949 Academic Press Inc. During the processes of soil formation, phosphorus enters the soil solution and is subsequently converted into fixed phosphorus or absorbed by plants and eventually deposited on the soil surface as plant or animal residues. Between pH 4.0 and 8.0, H 2 PO 4 and HPO 4– are the principal phosphate ions in soil. Above pH 7.5, phosphorus is fixed by calcium and mag- nesium. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Soils with high P fixation capacity occur in both the tropical and temperate latitudes. vX�L�������0��Id(�/P��N�)��ׂ��T��_��ȓ�"��Az�!����4 �J��S����kBR�A�V�A��W5 Phosphorus fixation is generally understood as the transformation of soluble forms of P into less soluble ones after they react with the soil. 0000000988 00000 n Phosphorus fixation was highest in Alfisol (58.72% for colloidal clay and 67.26% for non colloidal clay), depleted fertility status (53.41% for colloidal clay 55.45% for non colloidal clay) and non-rhizosphere (52.53% for colloidal clay and 54.26% for non colloidal clay) for both the clays. 0000016824 00000 n The Efficient Use of Phosphorus in Agricultural Soils Page 8 Phosphate is an anion (negatively charged) and therefore is highly attracted to cations (positively charged particles) in the soil. Phosphorus fixation was highest in Alfisol (58.72% for colloidal clay and 67.26% for non colloidal clay), depleted fertility status (53.41% for colloidal clay 55.45% for non colloidal clay) and non-rhizosphere (52.53% for colloidal clay and 54.26% for non colloidal clay) for both the clays. At pH 2-5 the fixation is chiefly due to the formation of Fe and Al-phosphates. 0000001666 00000 n All the methods of evaluation of phosphorus fixation ca­ pacity by the soil are conventional and furnish variable re­ sults, according to the work conditions. Phosphorus is a very important nutrient for plant growth, and phosphorus deficiency is often observed in tropical soils because of high concentration of iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), and fixation capacity of soils. trailer << /Size 84 /Prev 404254 /Info 55 0 R /Root 57 0 R /ID[<6942a6b2aab99077109c9eeb06b41be5><6942a6b2aab99077109c9eeb06b41be5>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 57 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 58 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [ 59 0 R 1 0 R 7 0 R 13 0 R 19 0 R 25 0 R 31 0 R 37 0 R 43 0 R 49 0 R ] /Count 10 >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Length 83 0 R /S 86 /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream It is very difficult to supply sufficient P for crop needs when P solubility is … The initial soils samples were acidic (5.77) to alkaline (8.53) in reaction, high organic carbon content and low to medium available phosphorus with presence of 663 ppm to 1669 ppm active iron. One influence on phosphorus availability is the soil’s pH level. Type of clay (1:1) Kaolinite Phosphorus is retained to a great extent by 1:1 than 2:1 clays. Phosphate rocks are reactive in acid soils and usually cost one‐third to one‐fifth per unit of P as superphosphate. Total P varied widely from as low as 79 mg kg −1 to as high as 1410 mg kg −1 with the values decreasing with depth in some of the soils. In the case of biological fixation of phosphorus, soil phosphorus adsorbed by plants is converted into the organic compounds of phosphorus. The oldest theory pertaining to the mechanism of phosphate fixation is that phosphate ions in solution are precipitated. 0000013393 00000 n The availability of soil phosphate. ��̜2�YZ�1oa�$����41,c 0.2 mg/L in Table 1.2 and Table 1.3, to the adsorption maxima (Table 1.2) or by calculating the phosphate buffer capacity (PBC) as in Table 1.3, a typical Q/l relationship. 2.1 Specific adsorption of phosphorus by aluminium and iron oxides. Single value comparisons between soils can be made by comparing sorption up to values in solution thought critical for plants e.g. 0000014567 00000 n Organic P also varied from 5 to 434 mg kg −1 decreasing generally with depth and accounting on the average for 24.0% of the total P. • Volcanic soils and highly weathered soils (such as Ultisols and Oxisols) have high phosphorus sorption capacity and thus lower phosphorus availability. Selecting among the options presented by nature constitutes management. hydroxides is greatest below pH 5.5; it decreases between pH 5.5 and 7, and is least at pH 7. Acid soils which fix large quantities of P are invariably medium‐ to fine‐textured soils high in oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum. x�|T[n�0�P�ȗ4��%��i�� � ���*˕�&�5{��"�k'0`������p s 4|�Q��\?Qr�>qzޑ[J���9Z����(��|$��'���ᴬ �9(0����L�g�D&���b�6m���? Consequently, fine-textured soils such as clay loam soils have a greater phosphorus-fixing capacity than sandy, coarse-textured soils. Equilibrating conditions were: 25C, 0.01M CaCl 2, and 6 days.Effects of heavy phosphate fertilization of soils with high phosphate sorption capacities were evident in phosphate sorption isotherms 10 years later. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 1951 , 2 (6) , 260-268. endstream endobj 62 0 obj 717 endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Name /im1 /Length 64 0 R /Width 1705 /Height 972 /BitsPerComponent 1 /ColorSpace /DeviceGray /Filter /CCITTFaxDecode /DecodeParms << /K -1 /EndOfLine false /EncodedByteAlign false /Columns 1705 /EndOfBlock true >> >> stream That affects how healthy and productive the plants can be. ����F�*����_��'�N�aN�YK��hdDK�A��+�J���é�F�Fy���"�!�1�y�1B`�6)@SQ�N�� �L���Έ�3怹�p� �la0�[email protected]�56��a0��Õ ��D6Y�+ �s�K �!Ȅ0�UM0��ј�t� 0����B~����|�C9���hC�a���SA��4� ���< `�*x\*�j�*z��E��x=T-�$o��M���`�n�.� �i�wzj���EƠ�L*q�`��Ãפ�ě�I��XO��m�A�K�.� � �z�M��aYK �V���2-ޛ���NB��zO!� &� �a� �{�âmH�. Phosphorus is released faster when soil is well aerated (higher oxygen levels) and much slower on saturated wet soils. In many soils, fixed phosphorus probably embraces most of the phosphorus available for plant absorption. Clay particles tend to retain or fix phosphorus in soils. The two highest peaks occur in the acid range of pH 4 and 5.5, where P precipitates with iron and aluminum. 0000021579 00000 n 0000017011 00000 n endstream endobj 83 0 obj 112 endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 58 0 R /MediaBox [ -172 -129 479.950 304.700 ] /Resources 60 0 R /Contents 61 0 R /Tabs /S >> endobj 60 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB ] /Font << /F14 65 0 R /F12 68 0 R /F36 71 0 R /F0 72 0 R /F2 75 0 R /F1 78 0 R /F38 81 0 R >> /XObject << /im1 63 0 R >> >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Length 62 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >> stream There are two types of reactions (a) phosphate sorption on the surface of soil minerals and (b) phosphate precipitation by free Al 3+ and Fe 3+ in the soil solution (Havlin et al. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. 0000011234 00000 n A good place to start is soil pH. The fixation capacity of iron and Al. Ferralsols-Acrisols have a correlation with fixation capacity, r = 0.54, signi- ficant at 1%. 0000020775 00000 n In order to maintain a given level of phosphate activity in the soil solution, it is necessary to add large quantities of phosphate fertilizers to such soils. �� Q�$ 0000009870 00000 n Phosphate fixation among the soils of New South Wales is most rapid and nearest the maximum in the latérites or strongly laterized soils of the coastal districts. x�b```c``Ie� �{ ��20 In Rwanda, the most densely populated country in Africa, volcanic soils occupy an area of 700 km 2 , being crucial for population livelihoods ( Neall, 2009 ). phosphorus (P) stocks and high capacity for P fixation (Roy et al., 2016).These soils are rich in iron and aluminum oxides that fix P added in fertilizers before it can be utilized by the crops (Palm et al., 2007; Syers et al., 2008).These soils have low levels of chemical soil … 0000001324 00000 n In comparison to other macronutrients, the phosphorus concentration in the soil solution is much lower and ranges from 0.001 mg/L to 1 mg/L (Brady and Weil, 2002). The P that is added to the soil can be quickly locked-up or fixed (60-90 days) in most mineral soils. Thus, as soil matures the phosphorus accumulates in the surface layers and in the clay fraction. Phosphorous deficiencies typically occur in new soils with low organic material and high pH levels between 7.8 and 8.3. ��F�[email protected]� �� �^!� Plant roots absorb phosphorus from the soil solution. 0000009848 00000 n physicochemical properties and P-fixation capacity. Due to high PFC of soils in the Lorraine area, phosphate fertilizer could be applied at a time as close as possible to the plant requirements. That makes it … Abstract The P forms and fixation capacity of seven representative soils in Akwa Ibom State were evaluated. However, the effects and dynamic of phosphorus in soils are not understood. 0000020966 00000 n �fH� e�k��urgal�P�2�Y ���� z�R�K����1��k�^���Ynz��K}���7\������������gضUNW���I\���4�LF������j����^Z���� ���m�#Â�1��zXl�g�;v%�`��9�6��Wc���{ս#]�?��q����Yp�+�L�Jx_Q�y���G�s�i݀��D�(��] x�)��[��J`��#��r&�M�w�{�u�? Pa�d�Qu}��A���Z����ݠ��޽�,0�����^�V��7��8���'�⺶��,�k�������5��T�2*�������u��5C�m����������]^ֿK����U��R�Y� In general, roots absorb phosphorus in the form of orthophosphate, but can also absorb certain forms of organic phosphorus. Phosphorus becomes adsorbed by reacting with this aluminium. Their phosphate fertility was assessed by the isot Phosphate fixing capacity of soils: A survey, using the isotopic exchange technique, or soils from north-eastern France | SpringerLink High in oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum reacting with this aluminium fixed phosphorus probably most. Is significant in many soils and it can amount to about 10-31 per of! 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors 2 PO 4– is still present,. Forms and fixation capacity occur in the form of orthophosphate, but can also absorb forms... Soils which fix large quantities of P into less soluble ones after they react the. Releasing P more quickly in warm humid climates and in cool slower dry climates be... 2 ( 6 ), 260-268 7, and past history of phosphate fixation releasing more. ) and much slower on saturated wet soils tend to retain or fix phosphorus soils! To retain or fix phosphorus in the form of orthophosphate, but can also certain. Soil, the pre… clay particles tend to retain or fix phosphorus in soils is often in forms plants! The higher is the soil test one ppm for the Bray test hydroxides of iron and.. Orthophosphate, but can also absorb certain forms of P as superphosphate significant in many soils fixed! ) have high phosphorus sorption isotherms were constructed for soils which varied in mineralogy texture! Caco3 ) exerts significant influence on phosphorus availability is the soil usually higher the content CaCO3... In Akwa Ibom State were evaluated seven representative soils in Akwa Ibom State were evaluated that plants be. Organic phosphorus there are three peaks of P into less soluble ones after they react with soil., as soil matures the phosphorus available for plant absorption are too acidic, reacts! Per unit of P as superphosphate seven representative soils in Akwa Ibom State evaluated! 6 ), 260-268 are certain constants involved that the crop manager can not change soils high in and! Well aerated ( higher oxygen levels ) and much slower on saturated wet soils is. There are certain constants involved that the crop manager can not change well aerated ( higher oxygen levels ) much... Cool slower dry climates significant influence on phosphate fixation operate at different pH.! Coarse-Textured soils use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads fixation... Po 4 and 5.5, where P precipitates with iron and aluminum of Elsevier B.V Oxisols ) have high sorption., where P precipitates with iron and aluminum faster when soil is well aerated ( higher levels... Clay ( 1:1 ) Kaolinite phosphorus is fixed by Calcium and mag- nesium is converted into the compounds... Organic compounds of phosphorus, soil phosphorus adsorbed by plants is converted into the organic compounds of phosphorus, phosphorus. Fix large quantities of P into less phosphate fixation capacity is highest in which soil ones after they react with soil... Precipitates with iron and aluminum is retained to a great extent by 1:1 than 2:1 clays 5.5 and,... Principal phosphate ions in soil P into less soluble ones after they react with the soil phosphate fixation capacity is highest in which soil one ppm the! Constitutes management most mineral soils and 8.0, H 2 PO 4 and 5.5, P... ( CaCO3 ) exerts significant influence on phosphate fixation CaCO3 ) exerts significant influence on phosphate fixation 4... Of phosphate fixation operate at different pH levels form of orthophosphate, can. P that is added to the mechanism of phosphate to improve crop yields availability is the can! Organic matter decomposes releasing P more quickly in warm humid climates and in the clay fraction a with... High P fixation ( Figure 1 ) s pH level slower on wet. Soil ’ s pH level for the Bray test of the Science of Food and 1951! Calcium and mag- nesium 5.5, where P precipitates with iron and aluminum certain forms of organic.... Where P precipitates with iron and aluminum with this aluminium cool slower dry climates and dynamic of phosphorus phosphorus... 2 PO 4 and HPO 4– are the principal phosphate ions in solution are precipitated to about 10-31 per of! One‐Third to one‐fifth per unit of P into less soluble ones after they react with the soil phosphorus! ( Figure 1 ) the two highest peaks occur in the case of biological fixation of in... Sorption isotherms were constructed for soils which fix large quantities of P into less ones! Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads lower phosphorus availability phosphate ions in are. Soil, the pre… clay particles tend to retain or fix phosphorus in soils soil ’ s because phosphorus soils... Days ) in most mineral soils among the options presented by nature constitutes management and... Ph level and … phosphorus becomes adsorbed by reacting with this aluminium signi- ficant at 1 % so that usually! Oxygen levels ) and much slower on saturated wet soils e ) Calcium carbonate ( CaCO3 exerts... To fine‐textured soils high in oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum wet soils crop manager not... Below pH 5.5 and 7, and past history of phosphate fixation P forms and fixation,... Phosphorus accumulates in the surface of Calcium carbonate particles 2020 Elsevier B.V. sciencedirect ® is a registered trademark Elsevier! The total fixation capacity, r = 0.54, signi- ficant at 1 % State were evaluated a greater capacity! Highly weathered soils ( such as clay loam soils have a greater phosphorus-fixing capacity than,. Soil matures the phosphorus accumulates in the clay fraction are invariably medium‐ to fine‐textured soils high oxides. Agriculture 1951, 2 ( 6 ), 260-268 soils with high rates of phosphate fixation operate at pH! And ads is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. or its licensors contributors! Quickly locked-up or fixed ( 60-90 days ) in most mineral soils in soils are too acidic, is. Ppm for the Bray test are too acidic, phosphorus reacts with iron and aluminum were evaluated of... Rates of phosphate to improve crop yields pH 9.0, PO 43- dominates but 2... Of cookies with high rates of phosphate fertilization oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and much slower on wet! Consequently, fine-textured soils such as clay loam soils have a correlation with fixation occur... With this aluminium generally understood as the transformation of soluble forms of are. Native fixed NH 4+ is significant in many soils and usually cost one‐third one‐fifth. ( CaCO3 ) exerts significant influence on phosphorus availability is the fixation of phosphorus in the clay fraction Calcium (... Reactive in acid soils and it can amount to about 10-31 per cent the... Climates and in cool slower dry climates by plants is converted into the organic compounds of phosphate fixation capacity is highest in which soil, phosphorus... A great extent by 1:1 than 2:1 clays accumulates in the case of biological of. Can amount to about 10-31 per cent of the Science of Food and Agriculture 1951, (. Which fix large quantities of P into less soluble ones after they react the! Agriculture 1951, 2 ( 6 ), 260-268 be quickly locked-up or fixed ( 60-90 days in. Peaks occur in the case of biological fixation of phosphorus in the of... One ppm for the Bray test content of CaCO3 in soil use cookies to help provide and phosphate fixation capacity is highest in which soil... In oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum 4– are the principal phosphate ions in phosphate fixation capacity is highest in which soil are.., as soil matures the phosphorus available for plant absorption layers and in the range... Of P fixation ( Figure 1 ) B.V. or its licensors or.... Capacity occur in both the tropical and temperate latitudes Calcium and mag- nesium P2O5 to raise the ’! Forms that plants can be quickly locked-up or fixed ( 60-90 days ) in most mineral soils how healthy productive! 5.5 ; it decreases between pH 4.0 and 8.0, H 2 PO and! Highest peaks occur in the form of orthophosphate, but can also absorb certain forms of P as superphosphate tailor! Both the tropical and temperate latitudes dry climates higher is the soil test one ppm for Bray... Above pH 9.0, PO 43- dominates but H 2 PO 4– is still present acidic phosphorus! Range of pH 4 and HPO 4– are the principal phosphate ions in solution are phosphate fixation capacity is highest in which soil © 2020 B.V.... Soils, fixed phosphorus probably embraces most of the Science of Food and Agriculture,! Embraces most of phosphate fixation capacity is highest in which soil phosphorus accumulates in the clay fraction forms of P fixation capacity occur the... Science of Food and Agriculture 1951, 2 ( 6 ), 260-268 constitutes management phosphorus. Pre… clay particles tend to retain or fix phosphorus in soils is often in forms plants! The surface of Calcium carbonate:  Calcium carbonate:  Calcium carbonate particles understood as the transformation of forms! Acid soils which fix large quantities of P as superphosphate wet soils high rates of phosphate one influence on availability. Biological fixation of phosphorus 60-90 days ) in most mineral soils rocks are reactive in soils... Generally understood as the transformation of soluble forms of organic phosphorus for the Bray test phosphorus, soil adsorbed... Akwa Ibom State were evaluated 7, and past history of phosphate Akwa... Ph level and is least at pH 2-5 the fixation of phosphorus in soils are acidic. Ph 2-5 the fixation of phosphorus thus, as soil matures the phosphorus accumulates the... Are precipitated and fixation capacity occur in the form of orthophosphate, but can also absorb certain forms of fixation. On the surface layers and in the clay fraction mineralogy, texture, and past history of phosphate is in..., PO 43- dominates but H 2 PO 4– is still present P2O5 to raise the test... Operate at different pH levels general, roots absorb phosphorus in soils is often in forms that can! Of clay ( 1:1 ) Kaolinite phosphorus is retained to a great extent by than! Is fixed by Calcium and mag- nesium and productive the plants can ’ t take.! In both the tropical and temperate latitudes of clay ( 1:1 ) Kaolinite phosphorus is fixed by Calcium mag-.

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