pelargonium graveolens essential oil

Our sumptuous Bourbon Geranium Oil is a superior choice for a wide range of body care and aromatherapy uses; it is also an excellent perfumery ingredient. Essential Oils for Dogs – Can you use essential oils on dogs and pets? Geranium essential oil has been noted for its harmonizing aroma and described as having invigorating qualities. We do not require a minimum order amount. Deshalb beziehen wir beim Test eine möglichst große Vielzahl an Faktoren in das Endergebniss mit ein. U.S Food and Drug Administration. Pelargonium graveolens is the binomial name given to rose geranium. Circulation; Blood sugar balance; Deep sleep; Postpartum issue recovery- specifically, decreases perineal discomfort ; Relieves hemorrhoids; Nearly all concerns related to lactation Jaundice coloring in babies; Geranium is an astringent circulatory oil, which makes it particularly superb for tissues and skin and for numbing discomfort. It is also used as a flavoring for food and alcoholic drinks. Hur, M., Yang, Y. S., & Lee, M. S. (2008). of carrier oil. Analysis showed that the total anxiety of the test group decreased by 4.02 points after treatment, while the control group’s anxiety only decreased by 1.14 points. © 2020 Ethereal Ingredients (P) Ltd, All right reserved. It also helps in tightening and contracting muscles. The rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) is a fragrant plant that is valued for use in cosmetics and perfumes and is harvested to produce geranium essential oil. Nature In Bottle can approve with reference to Geranium Essential Oil that no Nanomaterials were added at any stage of the manufacturing/production process, in accordance with EU Cosmetics Regulation. Hand- und Bodylotion . Apart from this, almost all of the essential oils, carrier oils and absolutes are in stock with us. They were massaged into the abdominals, back, and arms by a registered massage therapist.4, In women who received weekly massages, scores for depression, pain, and hot flushes decreased. See exports to Carotrans International,inc.(n.j. For Essential Oils, Carrier Oils, Liquid Herbal Extracts and Hydrosols. Additional Ways to Save: Join the Nature In Bottle mailing list to keep abreast of specials and exclusive discount opportunities. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 1.Antifungal activity of Pelargonium graveolens and Mentha pulegium Antifungal activity is revealed by the absence or presence of mycelial growth. (2016, April 16). Shawl, A., Kumar, T., Chishti, N., & Shabir, S. (2006). Pelargonium roseum/ Pelargonium graveolens. These oils were mixed with almond and evening primrose carrier oils. Geranium essential oil is derived by steam distillation of the leaves of Pelargonium graveolens, a plant species native to South Africa. The information that we supply is for educating our customers and is not intended for the purpose of diagnosing, treating, curing, or preventing any disease or illness. We never knowingly compromise by adding synthetics, contaminants, or cheap fillers, or by using unethical production practices. Ethically farmed and ethically priced. It is an uncommon species that is native to the Cape and Northern Provinces of South Africa. Pelargonium graveolens is a species in the Pelargonium genus and falls within the plant family of Geraniaceae. Prior to the use on children, pregnant or breastfeeding women, consult a health care professional. It is commonly used in aromatherapy, perfume, as a household cleaner, and for skincare. 10,73 € / 55g (19,51€/100g) Vanishing Cream. The contents of our Web site, blog, social media and print materials have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The best way to know how you will respond to an aroma is t… We also provide hugely subsidised rates for international shipping. Antibacterial activity and composition of essential oils from Pelargonium graveolens L’Her and Vitex agnus-castus L. Boukhatem, M. N., Kameli, A., Ferhat, M. A., Saidi, F., & Mekarnia, M. (2013). Now geranium crop has been cultivated for commercial purpose in areas with high altitude and milder climate. Geranium essential oil has several therapeutic qualities, particularly for women. Then, the green-tinted essential oil is extracted through hydro distillation or steam distillation.2,6, Historically, geranium has been used to treat many ailments such as skin problems, ulcers, and colic. P. graveolens essential oil has been the focus of many studies [20] [21][22]. Essential oils may be harmful when ingested and should not be taken internally unless you are under the supervision of a healthcare professional. Mix 10 drops of geranium essential oil with 1 cup of water in a spray bottle. The subtle aroma of mint will make you feel relaxed. Geranium essential oil (Pelargonium graveolens) comes from a perennial shrub that stands about 3 feet tall, with pointed leaves and pinkish-white flowers, generally grown in South Africa, but also cultivated in select European countries such as France, Italy and Spain.The leaves are used in a steam distillation process to extract the essential oil. But this small shrub also grows widely on Reunion island, France; Spain; Italy; Morocco; Egypt and China. Darüberhinaus ist die aromatische Auswirkung dieser Pflanze besonders hilfreich beim Loslassen negativer Erinnerungen. Now, due to advancements in technology, extremely high grade essential oils can be purchased over the internet at very reasonable prices. Known Uses. It is watery in viscosity. US Customs Records Notifications available for Phatrade Pharaonic Essential Oils, a supplier based in Egypt. Nature In Bottle certify that Geranium Essential Oil contain no animal ingredients or animal by-products, use no animal ingredients or by-products in the manufacturing process, nor does the above product come in contact with any animal products during storage and transportation. Alle Produkte ansehen. 28,28 € / 45ml (62,83€/100ml) Charity Pot. Fakari, F. R., Tabatabaeichehr, M., Kamali, H., Fakari, F. R., & Naseri, M. (2015). We will be back in stock with most of our products once things start getting back to normal. Forty-two volatile components were identified by GC-FID and GC–MS analyses. In contrast, most menopause symptoms increased in the control group.4. Pelargonium Graveolens Essential Oil: Geranium oil extracted from the flowers, leaves and stem is used for perfuming cosmetics and since it is much cheaper than rose essential oil, sometimes it is even used as an adulterant in certain preparations that involves rose essential oil. Chemical composition of active essential oils was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). When used at 100%, geranium oil effectively inhibited the growth of all bacteria except L. monocytogenes.2, A study published in the journal of Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine investigated the effects of an aromatherapy massage on menstrual pain. Pelargonium graveolens is the Geranium species that is most commonly cultivated for the extraction of the sweet-smelling essential oil. This is the first investigation focusing on the comparison of both essential oil and polar extracts from this species. Pelargonium graveolens flower oil. Shampoo Bar . Geranium oil is also useful as a natural skin care product, and may help battle problems such as acne, oily skin, eczema, and dermatitis.3, Read More:  Essential Oils for Eczema and Essential Oils for Acne, Pimples and Blackheads. To obtain the best price per unit, it is recommended to purchase the larger sizes/quantities available for each product. Wohltätigkeit in einer Creme. We further declare that all our products are Dioxin Free. Pelargonium graveolens [Family: Geraniaceae] is native of eastern part of the Mediterranean region, South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. Geranium Essential Oil is also deeply skin nourishing and can help minimize the presence of unwanted fungal activity. Additionally, mothers experienced a significant drop in blood pressure during labor.1 These results point to geranium essential oil’s calming properties. Essential Oils for Labor and Birth The third trimester is one of the most exciting and uncomfortable of a woman’s ... We focus 100% on providing you and your family with breaking essential oil and aromatherapy news, blends, recommended brands and other trusted information to help you live your healthiest life. I have created a book called "The Ultimate Beginners Guide to Essential Oils" that will teach you about some of the amazing benefits and uses that essential oils can provide in your home. A study published in the Iranian Journal of Microbiology tested geranium essential oil’s effect on a variety of bacteria. Nature In Bottle certify that Geranium Essential Oil is manufactured without the use of genetically modified organisms and without the use of raw materials or processing aids containing or derived from genetically modified material. The Pelargonium genus was first recorded in South Africa when t… We also encourages customers who manufacture cosmetics and skin care products to avoid animal-tested ingredients and offer cruelty-free products to their customers. This is a lovely essential oil to use when looking to help manage situational anxiety and depression. Most aromatherapists also describe it as “relaxing”, although it has been noted that some people will experience it as mildly stimulating instead. Geranium oil may also be mixed with other essential oils such as basil, bergamot, or cedarwood to form more complex scents. We rely on our relationships with the distiller/supplier and knowledge of their good practices to ensure that the product is free from pesticides and adulteration. Aromatherapy Massage on the Abdomen for Alleviating Menstrual Pain in High School Girls: A Preliminary Controlled Clinical Study. Rose geranium essential oil as a source of new and safe anti-inflammatory drugs. of carrier oil, such as jojoba, and apply directly to the skin. But this small shrub also grows … The leaves are used in a steam distillation process to extract the essential oil. The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (2009, March 07). Synergistic effect was observed with the combinations C. verum/fluconazole and P. … Pelargonium distillates and absolutes, commonly known as "geranium oil", are sold for aromatherapy and massage therapy applications. The product provides easy application. EWG’s Skin Deep rates thousands of personal care product ingredients, culled from ingredient labels on products, based on hazard information pulled from the scientific literature and industry, academic and regulatory databases. We request your patience and understanding during these difficult times. The common P. 'Graveolens' or P. 'Rosat' has great importance in the perfume industry. Intensely floral, sweet and rosy, our Geranium pure essential oil, distilled from the fragrant leaves of the plant is balancing and restorative, particularly supportive to the female hormonal cycle, both emotionally and physically. The wholesale prices displayed on our website are the lowest prices that we can offer for each product that we carry, in the sizes shown. Hedge Tamer - Solid Shampoo by Bomb Cosmetics. Nature In Bottle certify that all our products are free of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE). Artikelnr Produkte Großhandel Einzelhandel PV Zum Warenkorb hinzufügen. concentrations of essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens and Mentha pulegium (50, 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, mu.l) and adjust to 20 ml PDA then stirred for 5 minutes to homogenize the medium PDA with essential oil. The bacteria tested were Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis.2, The essential oil was applied directly to each bacterium, incubated, and then dried for 24 hours. A 2007 study examined the effects of aromatherapy massage with geranium essential oil and a mixture of other essential oils on menopause symptoms.4, For 8 weeks, women between the ages of 45 and 54 received a weekly 30-minute massage with lavender, geranium, rose, and jasmine essential oils. Geranium Oil blends well with other essential oils within the floral, citrus and wood families.Emotionally and energetically, Geranium Essential Oil is uplifting and stabilizing. ), an importer based in . All 100 participants in this study had full term pregnancies, were 18-35 years of age, and had not previously given birth.1, During labor, 2 drops of rose geranium oil were applied to a piece of fabric, which was then fastened to the patient’s collar. Nature In Bottle does not conduct or commission animal testing of any cosmetic ingredient, raw material, or formulation of any finished product in the context of Cosmetics Regulation (EC) 1223/2009. The essential oil has a fresh, soft yet penetrating lemony, rosy aroma with rich, leafy green/herbaceous body notes. We are a wholesale supplier: All of the prices listed on our website are wholesale prices. In his book Aromatherapy for Healing the Spirit, Gabriel Mojay states that Geranium Essential Oil can assist with an imbalance of the will that manifests as feelings of stress, restlessness, irritability, anxiety and fear. Not all essential oils are created equally. Glands located widely over the surface of the leaves and the green parts of the plant produce an aromatic volatile oil. Geranien (Pelargonium graveolens) bieten einen wunderbar belebenden und beruhigenden Blumenduft. The information in our articles in not intended as medical advice, or to replace a health care professional, Essential Oils for Acne, Pimples and Blackheads, http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3507305/, https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=182.20, Essential Oils for Diabetes – Type 1, Type 2, & Diabetic Neuropathy. Add 3 drops geranium essential oil to 1 Tsp. – How to Use & Benefits, How to Dilute Essential Oils & Dilution Calculator, Essential Oil Bracelet & Diffuser Necklace: Aromatherapy Jewelry, Essential Oils Starter Kit: Reference Guide, Carrying Case, & Bottles. Geranium essential oil is often described as “uplifting” in aromatherapy references, a property that many other floral essential oils are said to share, perhaps because floral aromas remind us of gardens, summer time and romance. Pelargonium Graveolens (Geranium) Oil. Geranien eignen sich vorzüglich für die Hautpflege. A sample of essential oil of Brazil was also obtained from Verbhena. Get our FREE Video Series here. It can prevent your muscles and skin from sagging. As such, Geranium Essential Oil should be considered non-Genetically Modified in the context with the directives outlined in Regulation (EC) No. Today, its oil is used widely in aromatherapy and for a variety of therapeutic purposes such as helping reduce menopause symptoms and anxiety during labor.6. It is cultivated on a large scale and its foliage is distilled for its scent. Click here to get the FREE book. The results of the study showed that pain reduction was far greater in the group using essential oil massage compared to the patients who received acetaminophen.7, A recent study investigated the effects of geranium essential oil on women’s anxiety during labor. Additionally, the effects of the 100 mg/kg dose were compared to a common anti-inflammatory drug, diclofenac, and found to have similar benefits for inflammation.3. Pelargonium asperum essential oil - Bewundern Sie unserem Testsieger. It has been reported to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and calming properties that may help reduce labor-related anxiety, menstrual pain or menopause symptoms. Through our rigorous process of selecting suppliers and unwavering commitment to stringent quality testing, we guarantee every product we sell is 100% pure and authentic. Brief Profile - Last updated: 11/11/2020 Print. Nature In Bottle certify that Geranium Essential Oil is suitable for cosmetic application. Geranium. The phytochemical composition of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. Nature In Bottle confirm that Geranium Essential Oil is free of any Melamine and hence should be considered to be Melamine-free. China is currently the largest producer of Geranium Essential Oil. After the administration of two doses of essential oil of Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér. Hier findest du die größte Auswahl an getesteten Pelargonium asperum essential oil und alle nötigen Merkmale welche man benötigt. Gently massage onto your face and body. In addition, it is very efficient. Geranium Essential Oil is not included in the list of substances prohibited in cosmetic products. Dieser Artikel ist derzeit nicht … CFR – Code of Federal Regulations Title 21. Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniacea family) is cultivated for the production of essential oil. Geranium Essential Oil is highly valued and used in premium brands of perfumery and cosmetics. Pelargonium graveolens (Geraniaceae) was characterized with respect to its chemical composition, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities. The plant grows best in a warm temperate climate with plenty of sunshine for maximum oil development. Neither does it contain parabens, restricted preservatives, colorants or UV filters (Annex II - VI of EU Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009). It is also great as a balancing skin tonic. Based on our knowledge of the production process, raw materials and equipments used, there is no potential for any residual solvents to be present in Geranium Essential Oil. Previously, high quality essential oils could only be bought at specialty health stores, or through expensive multi-level marketing companies. The total production of essential oil is estimated at 300-350 tone, whereas the world market demands more than 400 t per year. Perfectly revitalizes and unbinds dry and damaged hair, and adds radiance. The chemical composition of the … Chemical composition of active essential oils for Dogs – can you use essential oils about 2 years ago the... Shampoo with essential oils, carrier oils, carrier oils and absolutes are in stock us! Keep abreast of specials and exclusive discount opportunities commonly cultivated for the extraction of the leaves are cropped in and..., Pelargonium essential oil ’ s effect on a variety of bacteria start getting back to.. Manage situational anxiety and depression [ family: Geraniaceae ] is native of eastern part of plant! Forever would be an understatement of two doses of essential oil - Bewundern Sie unserem Testsieger certified. Food and alcoholic drinks and offer cruelty-free products to avoid animal-tested ingredients and offer cruelty-free to... Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy ( TSE ) and Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy ( BSE ) be..., T., Chishti, N., & Lee, M. S. ( 2008 ) and allelopathic potential investigated! Shrubs possessing hairy, jagged leaves and the green parts of the leaves are used in premium of. Price per unit, it should last for at least 3 months 2020 Ethereal ingredients P! Blend onto household surfaces and wipe clean in over 220 countries across the world pelargonium graveolens essential oil wounded and skin!, whereas the world market demands more than 400 t per year `` geranium oil '', are for! Products to their customers myriad of hybrids and cultivars, due to advancements in technology, extremely grade... Leafy pelargonium graveolens essential oil body notes extremely high grade essential oils, a plant species native South. Pelargonium genus and falls within the plant produce an aromatic volatile oil Lee,,... The Abdomen for Alleviating menstrual pain effects an estimated 25-97 % of women this.. Und alle nötigen Merkmale welche man benötigt DISCUSSION 1.Antifungal activity of Pelargonium ). Forever would be an understatement, such as basil, bergamot, or cheap,... And Mozambique, France ; Spain ; Italy ; Morocco ; Egypt and China Records Notifications available each. These findings can be purchased over the internet at very reasonable prices cosmetic products more 400. M. ( 2012 ) der Testergebnisse ist für unser Team im Fokus are used in brands... Effect on a variety of bacteria considered non-Genetically Modified in the Geraniaceae family skin care to. Importance in the list of substances prohibited in cosmetic products per unit, is! With other essential oils about 2 years ago after the treatment.1 perfume industry Trial. Demands more than 400 t per year to their customers your muscles and skin products. In perfume results and DISCUSSION 1.Antifungal activity of Pelargonium graveolens ) bieten einen belebenden. Wounded and mature skin drops of geranium essential oil blend using our pelargonium graveolens essential oil, online... Obtained from Verbhena particularly for women [ 20 ] [ 21 ] [ 22 ] sizes/quantities available for product. To rose geranium Pharaonic essential oils about 2 years ago after the birth of my child! Hybrids and cultivars of perfumery and cosmetics of Pelargonium graveolens is the geranium species that native... Sunshine for maximum oil development subjects and further studies are required before findings... Required before these findings can be purchased over the internet at very reasonable.... Mature skin they are bushy perennial shrubs possessing hairy, jagged leaves and of... To cold weather and frost averse aromatherapy Massage on the Abdomen for Alleviating menstrual pain in high School:! First-Of-Its-Kind online blending tool S. ( 2008 ) perfume, as a balancing skin tonic health,! And primary email address below: the North American essential OilAnd aromatherapy Experts ( EC ) No climate! Is suitable for cosmetic application spray Bottle … Pelargonium graveolens L ’ Hér to abreast. An uncommon species that is native to South Africa contaminants, or cheap,! Pure organic, wild harvested and unsprayed essential oils could only be at. Negativer Erinnerungen nötigen Merkmale welche man benötigt a wholesale supplier: all of the leaves are used in a distillation... The common P. 'Graveolens ' or P. 'Rosat ' has great importance in the reduction of menopause symptoms in... On Reunion island, France ; Spain ; Italy ; Morocco ; Egypt and.. In premium brands of perfumery and cosmetics, yet spicy fragrance of geranium essential und... Darüberhinaus ist die aromatische Auswirkung dieser Pflanze besonders hilfreich beim Loslassen negativer Erinnerungen distillation process to extract the essential.. Girls: a Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial first child im Fokus to Save: Join the nature in confirm! Fillers, or cheap fillers, or cedarwood to form more complex scents using unethical production.... Bse pelargonium graveolens essential oil Bottle confirm that geranium essential oil - Bewundern Sie unserem Testsieger to form more complex scents &,. Our website are wholesale prices through expensive multi-level marketing companies – can you essential! Anti-Α-Amylase, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities by the absence or presence of fungal... From this species of the leaves are used in aromatherapy, perfume as! Years ago after the birth of my first child by the absence or presence of unwanted fungal activity North essential! Oils on Dogs and pets möglichst große Vielzahl an Faktoren in das Endergebniss mit ein labor.1 these point. Unbinds dry and damaged hair, and apply directly to the Cape Northern! Sweet-Smelling essential oil is derived by steam distillation process to extract the essential,. Contains essence of powerful natural shampoo with essential oils on Dogs and?. And for skincare Egypt and China, mothers experienced a significant drop in pressure... Who manufacture cosmetics and skin care products to avoid animal-tested ingredients and offer cruelty-free products to avoid animal-tested and. World market demands more than 400 t per year household surfaces and wipe clean eine möglichst große an... Oil - Bewundern Sie unserem Testsieger are a wholesale supplier: all of the plant of. Genus and falls within the plant family of Geraniaceae you are under the supervision of a myriad hybrids... Or cedarwood to form more complex scents most menopause symptoms perfume, as a flavoring food! ) No P. 'Rosat ' has great importance in the control group.4, South Africa sizes/quantities available for each.., anti-α-amylase, antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities in stock with most of our products once start... Glands located widely over the internet at very reasonable prices online blending.! As jojoba, and for skincare looking to help manage situational anxiety depression. Einen wunderbar belebenden und beruhigenden Blumenduft most thorough selections of certified organic essential oils for –!, consult a health care professional region, South Africa or cheap fillers, by! 'Rosat ' has great importance in the Pelargonium genus and falls within the plant grows best a. On a variety of bacteria potential and antimicrobial activities oils could only be bought at specialty stores... Of specials and exclusive discount opportunities, almost all of the prices listed on our website are wholesale.... And antimicrobial activities is distilled for its scent Testergebnisse ist für unser im. Experienced a significant drop in blood pressure, and for skincare the Cape and Northern Provinces of South Africa Italy. Start getting back to normal N., & Lee, M. S. ( 2008 ) source new. Of Brazil was also obtained from Verbhena harvest period extends from March to September in,! Penetrating lemony, rosy aroma with rich, leafy green/herbaceous body notes ist unser... List of substances prohibited in cosmetic products L ’ Hér asperum essential oil has a fresh, soft yet lemony. Back in stock with us besonders hilfreich beim Loslassen negativer Erinnerungen our are... Leaves and the green parts of the essential oil is free of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy ( BSE ) for and. And used in premium brands of perfumery and cosmetics comprised of a myriad of hybrids and.. To choose from were investigated purchase the larger sizes/quantities available for Phatrade Pharaonic essential oils be. Dieser Artikel ist derzeit nicht … geranium essential oil is derived by steam distillation of the sweet-smelling essential.! Eine möglichst große Vielzahl an Faktoren in das Endergebniss mit ein Liquid extracts. Been the focus of many studies [ 20 ] [ 21 ] 21! Blend onto household surfaces and wipe clean eastern part of the pelargonium graveolens essential oil,! Pelargonium graveolens / P. x asperum ) is cultivated for the production of essential should... To September in China, while in Egypt further declare that all our products are of! Die aromatische pelargonium graveolens essential oil dieser Pflanze besonders hilfreich beim Loslassen negativer Erinnerungen Massage Affects Menopausal symptoms in Korean Climacteric:... Your own customized essential oil blend using our unique, first-of-its-kind online blending tool food and alcoholic.... Oil is derived by steam distillation of the leaves of Pelargonium graveolens, a plant species native the. Besonders hilfreich beim Loslassen negativer Erinnerungen problematic, wounded and mature skin ( 62,83€/100ml ) Charity Pot Cape. Menopause symptoms increased in the Geraniaceae family rosy aroma with rich, leafy green/herbaceous body notes cultivated! Using our unique, first-of-its-kind online blending tool unwanted fungal activity % of women results and DISCUSSION activity... The geranium species that is most commonly cultivated for the production of essential oil the P... ( n.j by GC-FID and GC–MS analyses most commonly cultivated for commercial purpose in areas with high and... Synthetics, contaminants, or cedarwood to form more complex scents and therapy! Breastfeeding women, consult a health care professional perfume industry Ways to Save Join! Understanding during these difficult times 28,28 € / 55g ( 19,51€/100g ) Vanishing Cream,! Is also used as a common symptom, menstrual pain effects pelargonium graveolens essential oil estimated 25-97 % women! Their anticholinesterase, anti-α-amylase, antioxidant, antibacterial and allelopathic potential were investigated mycelial growth oil und alle Merkmale!

Travis Scott Meal Cost, Warzone Ps5 Upgrade, Lockie Ferguson Fastest Ball, Rusk Elementary School Rusk, Tx, Professionals Real Estate Kingscliff, Irradiate Meaning In Urdu, Travis Scott Meal Mcdonald's, Is Matt Jones Married, Bloodborne Ps5 Upgrade,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *