ammonia production cost

Ammonia is being used as a refrigerant owing to several benefits such as high efficiency, environmentally-friendly, smaller pipe size, better heat transfer properties, and cost. It efficiently converts 90 percent of raw material to ammonia in … Contents 1. There are numerous large-scale ammonia production plants worldwide, producing a total of 144 million tonnes of nitrogen (equivalent to 175 million tonnes of ammonia) in 2016. The ammonia production rate is a record for electrochemical production, however the energy efficiency is still only 1.4–2.8%, so it cannot yet compete with the energy efficiency of the Haber-Bosch process, which is around 50–80%. With almost 80 years of experience in ammonia, our industry-leading solutions ensure reliable and safe operation with the lowest possible energy consumption and the lowest possible emissions. The validity of this cost estimate is supported by another IEA analysis. Thus, the pre-shipment cost of ammonia produced in overseas regions where the cost of natural gas is around $3.00 per MMBtu can be estimated at around $200 per tonne-NH3. On top of the cost of a conventional H-B plant, the capital cost also includes the water electrolysis equipment, which is currently of the order of USD 1M per MW of capacity. The IEEJ analysis took this into account in its estimation of the cost of CO2-free ammonia produced in the US. (1) If natural gas is used as a feedstock and the CO2 emitted from the production process is removed by CCS, the production cost of CO2-free ammonia is about $300 per tonne-NH3 (assuming a natural gas price of $3.00 per MMBtu; this is the solid blue line in the graph.) It was found in the environmental comparison that the patented process, if scaled globally, would address and eliminate 7% of the total CO Ammonia Manufacturers. High pressures cost a lot to produce and maintain. Construction of a new ammonia production plant with an annual capacity of 1.1 million tonnes in either Saudi Arabia, another Middle Eastern country, or North America; Natural gas feedstock priced at $3.00 per MMBtu; Realization of a 10% equity internal rate of return (EIRR) as supplier profit[5]. Proton Ventures offers modern technological capabilities which make it possible to move away from large scale plants and towards small-scale ammonia production (NFUEL units). The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today. Figure 2 Ammonia as the most cost-effective energy carrier. The value of the red-framed bars in the left-hand panel, which correspond to the cost of CO2-free ammonia from the Middle East to Japan, is almost in line with the results estimated by the IEEJ above. A stable binary hydride, as well as the simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell. 13 As discussed in more detail in the Intermittency section below, the impact of this capital cost indicates that it could add significantly to the capital intensity of ammonia production. This suggests that the IEA estimated the CCS cost of the CO2 emitted from ammonia production at about $50 per tonne-CO2, which increased the cost of ammonia by about $80 per tonne-NH3. Table 2. International Environment and Economy Institute. To maintain a competitive posit ion against US imports the gas price for a new Australian facility would have to be in the region of $3/GJ or below. It was based on the following cases and assumptions: The analysis shows that if CO2-free ammonia can be sold at prices between $276 per tonne-NH3 (for Saudi Arabia) or $300 per tonne-NH3 (for the other locations), the business will be profitable on the production side. Two conclusions can be derived from these analyses. 9 0 obj Since typical large scale shipping of ammonia is in the region of $50/t, ammonia delivered from a US facility would be in the region of $400/t. EOR technologies exist for complete CO2 sequestration at low incremental cost. The breakdown of these costs for each process in each decade from 2020 to 2050 is shown in Figure 8. by University of Tokyo. ECONOMICS OF AMMONIA FROM NATURAL GAS (AMMONIA E21A) It presents the economics of Ammonia production from natural gas in the USA using a process similar to KBR Purifier process. Ammonia-coal co-firing has also already been demonstrated, first by Chugoku Electric in July 2017 at its 156-MW Mizushima Thermal Power Station … x��}x\���̽w{�M۴�]I+iջ���,˲$˖l˖܍{7nL5:��b�)�lcSL�!H#�K�L ���̝;*�(���y��{����睹s�Μ�9sf�]a���E����7� �7���kz��znΟ�倔�[7�n=�*B\B��e뗯���f-B�]���W���{��N#d�Bu�W,�]��K�o#4Ҡ��{X��5NY�f����g ��yw��Ž?~Ү���r�������y�����Y�ty!�w�r~�ƥ�W=� C�b�ވx!��E2�����>*�WХR"� �8N�9�mč$�C#��jnP5r4��)�\$���L�'w��Լx� � 2��:��Q��8*D��MC3���G�=�.�p���IF)p]�F�h*jD�Q�E����)G��o�{�����(H��p�*�s>Z6�������w��O��s��&dFN��"( There is a global drive to demonstrate green ammonia plants and, thereby, to begin developing a market for green ammonia. 11 Recognizing that the lower heating value (LHV) of ammonia is 5.2 MWh tonne −1, this represents an energy efficiency of only 65%. Specifically, the variable cost of ammonia ($ per tonne-NH 3) can be approximated by simply multiplying the cost of natural gas ($ per MMBtu) by 30. Cost of CO2-Free Ammonia Arriving in Japan. The large quantities of ammonia produced globally in this way (more than 235 million tonnes, which ie. NH3) is one of the most produced synthetic chemicals, manufactured in more than 80 countries. In the discussion below I consider the cost aspect of CO2-free ammonia. Ammonia is one of the most highly produced inorganic chemicals. (2) If the cost of renewable electricity becomes cheaper than about $50 per MWh, the cost of producing CO2-free ammonia from renewable hydrogen may become lower than that from natural gas. The compromise. Published November 2009. 200 atmospheres is a compromise pressure chosen on economic grounds. Estimation of the Production Cost of CO2-Free Ammonia. If the cost of natural gas is $3.00 per MMBtu, for example, the variable production cost of ammonia … (co-injection with N2) • This co-product value can reduce production cost for eventual fuel use. Figure 3 Green ammonia and low carbon fertilizer production in 2050. Roughly speaking, this represents a … Ammonia—a renewable fuel made from sun, air, and water—could power the globe without carbon. Under such circumstances, knowing the price of feedstock natural gas makes it possible to estimate the variable production cost of ammonia for each production plant. That means that the running costs of your plant are very high. What is important is to assess the social implementation potential of CO2-free ammonia from this cost level of roughly $350 per tonne-NH3 derived from these analyses. The next highest energy consuming process is urea production. /analysis/ammonia-production-cost. 200 atmospheres is a compromise pressure chosen on economic grounds. First, the estimates suggest that the cost of CO2-free ammonia arriving in Japan is likely to be around $350 per tonne-NH3. /analysis/ammonia-production-cost. Ammonia, one of the key ingredients in fertilisers, is made on a huge scale by the only reaction that can reliably break the strong dinitrogen bond: the Haber–Bosch process. %���� The catalyst The International Energy Agency estimated production costs for CO2-free ammonia in its 2019 report The Future of Hydrogen, as shown in the figure below. %PDF-1.5 This chapter describes briefly about hydrogen and current hydrogen production and storage technologies, the cost of hydrogen production from different processes, ammonia and current status of ammonia production followed by a detailed discussion of different ammonia decomposition catalysts. By Robert F. Service Jul. According to these analyses, the cheapest CO2-free ammonia would be the one produced in the Middle East. This reduction in membrane costs combined with the relatively small contribution of the MA-ATR reactor to the total plant cost meant that the ammonia production cost increased by only 0.7% in the case with a membrane volume fraction of 0.25. The rapid implementation of this new technology has resulted in many process problems during construction, startup, and operation. Specifically, the variable cost of ammonia ($ per tonne-NH3) can be approximated by simply multiplying the cost of natural gas ($ per MMBtu) by 30. >> All Rights Reserved. Globally, ammonia production plants made 157.3 million metric tons (t) of the compound in 2010, according to the Institute for Industrial Productivity’s Industrial Efficiency Technology Database. There is potential for decreases in capital and operating costs by further optimizing minor equipment, but the capital cost is limited by the capital costs of hydrolysis. Editor’s note: Bunro Shiozawa is a Senior Associate at Sumitomo Chemical Company. CO2-Free Ammonia Production Cost as Estimated by the IEEJ. Future of ammonia production. 1��JRfte�?�����hQOL�$��w~g���k�↓��K���������/#TS�AfMm�7�}��1����ybL�#��%UU�gA٠�P�`�����Z�����[email protected]�(�u�q=��Iv��A��egF/� IS��H���p��]�� �������HϢ�+��]�?TSC�6��/Q$�+յ�? In Japan, a green ammonia pilot plant began operations in Fukushima in April 2018. (Here, the cost of CO2-free ammonia is indicated as the calorific-equivalent hydrogen cost ($ per kg-H2)). Note that the graph puts the cost of producing natural gas-based (non-CO2-free) ammonia at around $220 per tonne-NH3, at a natural gas price of $3.00 per MMBtu (solid gray line). Moreover, ammonia cost could even almost reach the level of 20 yen/Nm3-H2, which is the target for 2050. [1] Decided by Relevant Ministers Council on Renewable Energies and Hydrogen Energy of the Japanese government in December 2017. [5] “A Feasibility Study on the Supply Chain of CO2-Free Ammonia with CCS and EOR,” IEEJ, February 2019, [6] Figure 22, IEA, The Future of Hydrogen, June 2019. The renewable energy production profile determines the size and the rate of the ammonia synthesis plant. ammonia could be produced for about $350/t. Ammonia production has become one of the most important industries in the world. With this approach and technology Proton Ventures can provide customers with small scale ammonia plants, insuring customer’s independence on the transport cost and the NH3 price fluctuations. Finally, the issue of CO 2 tax as well as CO 2 emission restrictions need to be considered, which will further By Svend Ravn. If the cost of natural gas is $3.00 per MMBtu, for example, the variable production cost of ammonia from this feedstock would be about $90 per tonne-NH3. Without the crop yield made possible by ammonia-based fertilizers and chemicals, the global population would be at least two to three billion less than it is today (3). Other uses for ammonia include as a refrigerant, a cleaning and bleaching agent, and a household cleaner. Spe- The capital cost of a proton exchange membrane electrolyser for a conventional Haber–Bosch plant is US$1 million per megawatt but this cost is expected to decrease with further R&D. /Length 19070 This statistic depicts the ammonia production in the United States from 2014 to 2019. These costs accounted for 11% and 15% of the overall ammonia costs in Europe and Ukraine, respectively, although hourly rates are … Naphtha/natural gas (steam reforming of light hydrocarbons) Coal, petroleum coke, petroleum resids (partial oxidation of carbon source) 1 price 5 fertilizers-food ammonia 1 5 114 Ammonia (a.k.a. A completely independent cost analysis for CO2-free ammonia was conducted under the auspices of the SIP “Energy Carriers” initiative by the Institute of Energy Economics, Japan (IEEJ). ), which varies with location and age of the plant’s facilities (and often other factors), must be added to the variable cost. The cost of transporting CO2-free ammonia to Japan and then to its point of use within the country needs to be added to the cost of production. The catalyst 12, 2018 , 2:00 PM. The SWAP process in action. How to reduce ammonia production cost with improved ammonia synthesis catalyst? From a social acceptance perspective, most people would immediately associate ammonia with its awful smell, which links to a perception of high toxicity. Although fundamental ammonia-manufacturing technologies have not radically changed in the last ten to fifteen years, numerous technological changes and improvements have taken place in processing technologies, aiming for increased energy efficiencies and, of late, for higher capital productivity and improved competitive profit margins from lower operating costs. This cost level corresponds to about 22 yen per Nm3-H2, as can be seen from the table at the beginning of the article, which almost meets the 2050 cost target for hydrogen set by the “Basic Hydrogen Strategy.”. China produced 31.9% of the worldwide production, followed by Russia with 8.7%, India with 7.5%, and the United States with 7.1%. This might be a reasonable cost in the Himalayas – I cannot claim to know cost escalation factors for that location – but it is far above the $900 to $1,200 I’m seeing for the most competitive projects being built in the US today. At this ammonia production cost, a rough estimate for the cost of hydrogen available in the ammonia (assuming a cracking efficiency of about 75%) is ~$3.00/kg (gge). • Since CO2 for EOR can be sold at about $20 per tonne-CO2, this would reduce the production cost of CO2-free ammonia by about $35 per tonne-NH3. Ammonia Economy, which treats ammonia as an alternative fuel and energy storage mechanism. That means that the running costs of your plant are very high. The United States is one of the world’s leading producers and consumers of ammonia. 12, 2018 , 2:00 PM. By Robert F. Service Jul. Second, until around the year 2030, the cost of CO2-free ammonia from a combination of natural gas and CCS will be considerably cheaper than that of renewable hydrogen. If the cost of natural gas is $3.00 per MMBtu, for example, the variable production cost of ammonia from this feedstock would be about $90 per tonne-NH 3. The urea price, adjusted for the relative nitrogen content, must reflect a sufficient margin above the ammonia price to cover the cash cost of upgrading the ammonia. So in theory, the energy cost of direct electrolytic production of ammonia from nitrogen and water is less than the cost of electrolytic production of hydrogen followed by production of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen. If the pressure used is too high, the cost of generating it exceeds the price you can get for the extra ammonia produced. • Carbon free ammonia needs to be a significant contributor to the [email protected] initiative. If an enhanced oil recovery field exists near the ammonia plant, the high concentration of CO2 emitted from the production process can be sold almost intact for EOR. Naphtha/natural gas (steam reforming of light hydrocarbons) Coal, petroleum coke, petroleum resids (partial oxidation of carbon source) 1 price 5 fertilizers-food ammonia 1 5 114 Ammonia (a.k.a. Natural gas and OTEC also provided low costs of less than 689 $/t, or a gasoline equivalent of 4.51 $/gal. Ammonia more hydrogen dense than hydrogen itself. In both cases, very large gas carrier (VLGC) vessels are used with approximate capacity of 80,000 m3. Also considering high transportation costs, the break-even point for green ammonia production is shifted to 0.055 $/kWh. Despite these economic concerns, the process engineering team has concluded that a carbon-free ammonia production … ), which varies with location and age of the plant’s facilities (and often other factors), must be added to the variable cost. To estimate the cost of carbon-free ammonia, the cost of removing CO2 by carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), with or without enhanced oil recovery (EOR), needs to be added. Ammonia is used in the production of hexamethylene diamine (HMDA) for nylon, acrylonitrile (ACN) for fibres and plastics, caprolactam for nylon, isocyanates for polyurethanes, and hydrazine. The biggest cost of ammonia manufacturing is natural gas. Ammonia production has increased steadily since 1946 (Figure 2), and it is estimated that the annual production of ammonia is worth more than $100 billion, with some plants producing more than 3,000 m.t./day of NH3. These are the facts, which make renewable energy interesting, not only for power, but also for other appli - cations such as fertilizer production. Furthermore, capital costs, operating parameters and other financial assumptions of a power-to-ammonia plant were used in an economic model to calculate the break-even point at which the total cost and the total revenue are equal. [2] Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions in Ammonia Production 2008-09 Summary Report, International Fertilizer Industry Association, September 2009. After 2030, however, the IEA expects that the cost of producing ammonia from renewable hydrogen will eventually fall to less than half its 2030 level[6], as the cost of renewable electricity decreases further and related technologies advance. medium-scale ammonia plant to be five years with a production cost of $600/ton, where the patented process plant can break even in less than two years and has a relative production cost of $232/ton. As part of the Ammonia Economy, costs for production, storage, and transportation of this alternative fuel are also presented. According to the new market research report published by MarketsandMarkets™, the Green Ammonia Market size will grow to USD 852 million by 2030 from USD 11 million in 2020, at a CAGR of 54.9% during 2020 to 2030. A study by the International Fertilizer Industry Association in 2008 on energy efficiency of 93 ammonia plants in 33 countries[2] found that the top decile of energy efficient plants using natural gas as a feedstock achieves an efficiency of 32 GJ per tonne-NH3. The economic comparison shows a breakeven point for a current medium-scale ammonia plant to be five years with a production cost of $600/ton, where the patented process plant can break even in less than two years and has a relative production cost of $232/ton. declining energy cost. Decades of price information is already available (at a cost) for a range of regional ammonia trading hubs, most importantly Tampa in Florida, and Yuzhnyy in Ukraine. The energy efficiency of ammonia production using a natural gas feedstock in particular has almost reached the theoretical limit. It is also used in metal treating operations. The cost analyses presented in the report Ammonia E21A target a 800 kta (kilometric tons per annun) United States-based plant. Natural gas is the key cost driver for the ammonia industry as, depending on its price, it makes up approximately 70-85% of the ammonia production costs (see Figure 5). Ammonia Production Cost Analysis 2020 Ammonia is an example of a well-known compound of nitrogen and hydrogen. [3] IEA, The Future of Hydrogen, June 2019. /Filter /FlateDecode The figure below shows the IEA’s cost estimate for importing hydrogen energy in the form of CO2-free ammonia from Australia and the Middle East to Japan, and from Russia to the EU. The ammonia production rate is a record for electrochemical production, however the energy efficiency is still only 1.4–2.8%, so it cannot yet compete with the energy efficiency of the Haber-Bosch process, which is around 50–80%. This cost was estimated at $40-80 per tonne-NH3 by the IEEJ study. Ammonia plants built close to EOR fields can sell their waste CO. 2. to be sequestered in oil fields after use. @��h���14(�ݹ��K��1��������I�4?���< qOK���8�!��I*� z,��E�S�2�1�^����+�U�s����|�WdDz��H�8��6���K.�?onWgǬ��֙-3��7Mkl�����������R^VZR\TX���H��SB�~��d4�4j�R!���QFm��'���"���L�BD︈�� D�ML���&�[email protected]�eg�LД�є�(G���P��tM(0��v��&��;#�f�1��@0Wj�+j}�'P�W�u��ڞȯ_��U/Ugf�~��X_jh}?N��"�RkK�a�֑������%}3[;kk��ż���} Costs of your plant are very high an example of a well-known compound of and! How to reduce ammonia production has become one of the most produced chemicals... Without carbon provided low costs of your plant are very high discussed below technology! The economics of CO2-free ammonia is indicated as the simplest pnictogen hydride, as as! New technology has resulted in many process problems during construction, startup, a... Energy storage mechanism the biggest cost of generating it exceeds the price you can get for the extra ammonia in. 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Is urea production incentive to sell the ammonia synthesis plant cost would be the one produced the... ) ) shifted to 0.055 $ /kWh N2 ) • this co-product value can reduce production cost eventual... Per ton is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell key item... To be a significant contributor to the theoretical limit suggest that the running costs of plant! Operating costs are projected to keep falling as the price you can get for the extra ammonia in... A colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell power continues to drop represents a … sidering this high cost! Generating it exceeds the price you can get for the extra ammonia produced cut....

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